When people who want to be biological parents begin to experience problems starting a pregnancy, they wonder what factor may be hindering fertilization. One of the most common causes of fertility problems in women is tubal obstruction. The fallopian tubes belong to the female reproductive system and connect the ovaries to the uterus. In short, its function is to receive the egg, enable the transport of sperm for fertilization to occur and, once the egg is fertilized, transport the embryo to the endometrium. For this reason, any alteration or obstruction in the tubes can cause problems for conception.
Tubal obstruction can be unilateral or bilateral. When it occurs in only one of the tubes, it does not absolutely hinder the woman's fertility. On the other hand, when the obstruction is in both tubes, the possibility of pregnancy is nil. In addition, the woman who suffers from blocked fallopian tubes will probably not experience any symptoms and, usually, this condition is not detected until there are problems to fertilize.
There are different ways to detect a tubal blockage. First, there is the hysterosalpingography, which consists of taking x-rays after injecting a liquid into the uterus. The liquid will be distributed through the tubes and it will be possible to see in the images if the area is permeable or not. Secondly, there is hysterosonography, although this test is not part of the basic study that is carried out on couples with fertility problems. Finally, there is the laparoscopy, which consists of a small incision at the level of the navel, through which an optical device will be inserted and thus be able to observe the state of the fallopian tubes.
One of the most common alterations in the fallopian tubes is Hydrosalpinx, which consists of an accumulation of fluid, resulting in dilation and distension of the tubes. The main cause of this condition is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) and, among the most common risk factors are endometriosis, IUD insertion as a contraceptive, and a previous ectopic pregnancy.
If the cause of a tubal obstruction is due to infection, the solution will be a treatment with antibiotics. However, if the alteration in the tubes is more complex, it is advisable to perform laparoscopic surgery in order to remove the obstruction and restore the fallopian tubes.
Even so, there are cases where the obstruction is irreversible, so assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are recommended in order to obtain a pregnancy. For women who suffer from Hydrosalpinx and want to be biological mothers, the best solution is In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). In this way you can have a controlled ovarian stimulation, and fertilization would be performed in a laboratory.