40% of cases of infertility in couples have a male origin, either due to alterations in semen quality or ejaculation problems.
Testicular biopsy is a procedure that allows couples to achieve pregnancy through IVF treatment with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), without the need for donor sperm.
Testicular biopsy is a superficial surgical intervention based on the extraction of one or several portions of tissue through small incisions in the testicles. The pieces of tissue are observed under a microscope to detect the presence or absence of sperm. This surgical intervention is performed by a urologist supported by a biologist.
It can be done by opening the skin of the scrotum or through a puncture and aspiration with a special needle. To do this, local or general anesthesia is administered to the area, so the testicular biopsy does not cause pain.
Once the sperm have been obtained, they can be frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196C or used directly to fertilize the woman's eggs extracted by ovarian puncture during IVF treatment.
Indications for testicular biopsy
In general, this technique is performed with two objectives: diagnostic and therapeutic. Thus, testicular biopsy makes it possible to determine the cause of male sterility and to obtain sperm when a seminogram shows azoospermia (absence of sperm in the ejaculated semen).
It is also indicated in cases of seminal duct obstruction, the causes of which are diverse:
- Absence of vas deferens.
- Cystic fibrosis.
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